Chronological list of material updates to "Observations On Turkish Bayonets"


G1 (FAL) Ersatz bayonet positively identified and one new variant noted.


Misinformation regarding M1903 scabbard corrected. I had incorrectly stated the scabbard was identical to German S98 scabbard but there are some dimensional differences in the throat piece.

Some information on the "AS.FA" marking added to NOTES section.


 Added listings on Turkish use of Russian Ob. 1891 bayonet and Shortened version of M1874 Peabody bayonet.


 Section on G1 (FAL) Double Ring Ersatz bayonets completely rewritten with new information about additional variants and all pictures replaced with improved examples and new pictures showing differences in variants in greater detail.

Shortened variant of S98 "Quillback" bayonet without muzzle ring added.

Brass hilted Ersatz variant with conversion to high ring export pattern added.


1 additional bayonet listed under G1 Double ring types.

Short variant M1874 Peabody bayonets with 2 variant scabbards added.

Additional pictures and information on M1890 bayonet and scabbard markings added.

New sections added covering Turkish use of German S84/98, Japanese T30, Yugoslavian M1924 and Belgian FN1924 bayonets.

Additional data and observations added to NOTES section with regard to the "AS.FA" marking.


Examples of short production M1903 "Alternate Models" added both with and without hooked quillions intact.

Low muzzle ring added, Quillion removed full length converted German S98/05 bayonet variant added.

Additional pictures and information regarding shortened M1890 bayonet with slightly longer than normal 285mm blades added.

2 Hi-Ring Ersatz variants added.

5 Ersatz variants with unmodified muzzle ears added.


1 additional bayonet listed under G1 Double ring types.

4 additional variants added under M1 Garand conversions.

Full length M1887 bayonet added with additional information about it and later conversions to M1935.  Explanation of how to differentiate between M1887 and M1890 bayonets converted to M1935 standards.

Correction to formula for Gregorian to Hijra date conversions in appendix.

Additional observations added to section dealing with M1903 Alternate Model bayonets.

Unaltered variant German S98/05 bayonet example added and observations on dates of alteration to shorter blades included.

Imperial German S84/98II bayonet variant added.

Additional variant of a converted Japanese T30 bayonet added.


Additional observations added to section dealing with M1903 Alternate Model bayonets with shortened non purpose built blades.


Images of Turkish contract M1887 rifle added.


CORRECTION- Original Serbian nomenclature of M1880 Mauser Milanovic bayonets converted to M1935 standard was erroneously stated as "M1887" and included with the M1887 Turkish bayonet.  The M1880 conversion has been placed in its own appropriate section and improper references to it being called an M1887 have been corrected to M1880 or entirely removed.


Example of unaltered Turkish used S98/05nA bayonet added that seems to have been returned to Germany and reissued under the Weimar Republic.

Turkish marked unaltered example of a German "Parallel Edge Blade" Ersatz bayonet added.

Turkish reworked British P1903 bayonet added.

Turkish shortened German S14 bayonet added.

Aluminum copy of Turkish altered "export pattern" Ersatz bayonet added.


Information on M74 Peabody bayonets updated and some photos replaced with improved versions.

Additional Turkish re-issued Imperial German S84/98II bayonet added.

Additional "C1917" Ersatz variant added and some related previous speculative remarks by The Author have been clarified and others removed entirely in light of additional information uncovered.

M1890 variant bayonet made by Weyersberg, Kirschbaum and Co. of Solingen Germany and so marked in western script on the ricasso as opposed to the normal Arabic ricasso marking added.

Bulgarian used M1890 bayonet added.

Greek conversion of M1903 bayonet for Y1903MS rifle added.

Unmodified Turkish used British P1903 bayonet added.

Modified Ersatz variant added.


CORRECTION- original nomenclature of Romanian bayonets converted by Turkey was previously stated as "M1904" which has proven to be incorrect and has been corrected to "M1893".

Ersatz variant added.

New section on frogs added. (Currently very sparse)

M1935 conversion to M1 Garand variant added.

M1890 conversion to M1935 with new scabbard variant added.

2 variant M1890 full length scabbards documented.

Turkish issued No.9 bayonet for British No.4 Enfield rifles added.

Unidentified conversion of M1887 bayonet added.


Section on "Clip-On" ersatz bayonets added.


New section added on Turkish used Czechoslovakian VZ23 (nomenclature speculative) bayonets.

New information added supporting the possibility that shortened Yugoslavian M1924 and Belgian FN1924 bayonets are Turkish conversions.


Unidentified conversion of M1887 bayonet purported to be for a submachine gun added.

CORRECTION- Conversion of S98nA to M1935 is actually a conversion from and S98aA.

Actual example of an S98nA conversion to M1935 added.

CORRECTION- Reference to nomenclature of the Ersatz bayonet made specifically for Turkey with high muzzle ring as "C.1917" is incorrect.  The reference and subsequent sub references to it have been corrected to read "M1916"

Cast hilt export pattern Ersatz conversion bayonet variant added.

Section on Turkish G3 bayonets added.

Anecdotal information added to "Notes" section regarding a Turkish reworked US M1917 bayonet.


Drawings of clip on and corkscrew Ersatz bayonets added.

Additional example of Turkish marked Russian Ob. 1891 bayonet added.

Assumed Turkish modified German S71/84 bayonet added.

Many various older low quality pictures replaced with improved images.


I was fortunate enough to acquire a lot of nearly 1,000 various Turkish bayonets of all kinds in early June of 2003.  Due to the sheer volume of new data gathered all record keeping of individual updates went completely out the window at this point and roughly 150 "new" bayonets were cataloged and added to "Observations" bringing the total number of entries over 300.  Tons of crummy old pictures were also replaced and several sections were reformatted to be more printer friendly for those who wish to make hard copies for their own use.

During the course of this major revamping I added distinct individual reference numbers to all entries as a result of client feedback.

I also performed extensive new research on the subject of GERMAN Ersatz bayonets and included it regardless of the existence of any Turkish examples of particular models or not.  It was necessary to understand the German base models better to properly catalog Turkish used and modified examples.  Where possible, base model Ersatz bayonets are now included and many previously undocumented variants are now cataloged here.  I have expanded greatly on Anthony Carter's "German Ersatz Bayonets 1" and if you use that reference you absolutely NEED a copy of OOTB even if you don't care about the Turkish variations.

Original models of foreign bayonets modified by Turkey are now included.  If no proof exists that Turkey used specific models in their original configuration they are given a "Provisional" reference number and clearly labeled as not being Turkish in the text.


Correction to Ref# 47-254471.  Bayonet was incorrectly identified and categorized as having a wide thin export pattern crossguard.  It actually has a Flat Sided thin export pattern crossguard and the correct ID# is Ref# 47-254477

From 23JUN04 through August 05AUG04-

German Ersatz bayonet identification matrix expanded with some new features to account for.  This necessitated using letters to designate some features for sections where numbers 1-9 were already exhausted.  Former S1 and S2 designators for recycled socket blades had not yet been used in any entries so have been redesignated as A and B respectively and the Carter EB# cross reference table changed to reflect the new use of these letters.

New information added to Chapter 11 regarding the possible German origin of the M1916 (SÜNGÜ 1334) bayonets and who the specific manufacturer was.  1 new variant added.

Many older low quality images were upgraded with newer better ones.

32 New variants added to the German Ersatz sections and a new class of crossguard included in the identification matrix.  5 new hilt variations are included at least 4 of which are specifically for use with recycled socket bayonet blades.  Cross reference table for Carter's EB numbers is updated and corrections made with regard to these hilt variations.

3 new variants added to the German S98 section.

3 new variants added to the German S98/05 section.

New variant added to the German S84/98 section as well as confirmation of Turkish use of later models and removal of previous contrary speculation from the section.

Additional information added to Section #29 on British P1907 bayonets.

2 new variant M1888 Steyr bayonets added to Section #20

Some improved images added to Section #6 as well as one new variant.

New variant added to Section #22 on FN24 bayonets.

Special article about Turkish conversion bayonets for the US M1 Garand added to the Additional Notes section.  Info on similar conversions for the Greek Y:1903 series rifles is also included.

Integral bayonet variant added and included in section 11 with turkish specific ersatz variants.

New section (#36) added with information on Turkish use of Czechoslovakian VZ24 bayonets containing 2 variants.

4 "In Use" pictures added.

4 grip variants added to M1874 Peabody section.

Images added for Ref# 12-130 which previously was only a text reference.

2 new variants added to section #8 on Turkish M1890 bayonets.

4 new variants added to section #35 on Turkish reissued Czech VZ23 bayonets.

New section (#21) added for Turkish used Austro-Hungarian M1895 Steyr bayonets containing 2 variants.

1 new variant added to section #55 on Romanian M1893 bayonets.

Section added (#61) on the Russian M1895 Winchester bayonet.

A short glossary of terms added.

Sections #2 and #3 added for Pre-1874 Ottoman used bayonets containing 6 entries.

#60-10 "Additional Example" of a Turkish reissued Russian Ob.1891 bayonet has been debunked and is left in the chapter with an explanation of how it was misidentified so others may read it and avoid making the same mistake I did.


CORRECTION to #36-10- Turkish reissued Czech VZ24 bayonet.  The final picture showed markings on the butt of the pommel and included some speculative comments on their meaning.  The pommel of the bayonet depicted is devoid of markings and the image with markings is of a different bayonet which I mixed up with the Turkish subject bayonet and included by mistake.  This image and subsequent erroneous commentary have been removed and should be disregarded in copies published between 5AUG04 and 15AUG04.

From 15SEP05 through 10OCT05-

Section 47 on Imperial German Ersatz bayonets- 32 new variants added, classification system enhanced to provide for identification if original models of recycled blades, detailed images added to base hilt model descriptions where possible and images of associated Imperial German inspectors' markings added where possible.

6 entirely new sections added dealing with British P1888 bayonets, German KS98 bayonets, Greek M1903 bayonets, Serbian M1899(?) bayonets, Spanish M1892/93 bayonets and a catch all section for Hybrid and otherwise unclassified bayonets at the end.

An additional 63 various bayonets were added throughout the work and numerous old substandard images have been replaced with improved pictures.

21FEB06- Ottoman issued example of US M1873 Trapdoor bayonet added.

24APR06- 1 new M1935 bayonet variant added to section 12.
1 new modified Imperial German S84/98II bayonet variant added to section 45.


1 new variant added to section 3 on Pre-1874 Yataghan bayonets.

1 new variant added to section 6 on M1874 bayonets.

1 new variant added to section 7 on M1887 bayonets.

3 new variants added to section 8 on M1890 bayonets.

1 new variant added to section 12 on M1935 bayonets.

1 new variant added to section 21 on M1895 Steyr bayonets.

1 new variant added to section 22 on FN1924 bayonets.

1 new variant added to section 29 on British P1907 bayonets.

1 new variant added to section 30 on British P1913 bayonets.

1 new variant and 1 fake example of an existing variant added to section 42 on S98 bayonets.

4 new variants and 2 fake examples of existing variants added to section 44 on S98/05 bayonets.

1 new variant added to section 45 on German S84/98 bayonets.

1 new variant added to section 46 on German S14 bayonets.

2 new variants added to section 47 on Imperial German Ersatz bayonets.

2 new variants added to section 65 on Serbian M1880 bayonets

New information and variant added to section 70 on Spanish M1892/93 bayonets.

1 new variant added to section 80 on Yugoslavian M1924 bayonets.

New section added with 1 variant of the M1910 Ross bayonet.



-REFERENCE #47-2504414 was misidentified and is actually  REFERENCE #47-2534414

-REFERENCE #47-250A was misidentified and is actually  REFERENCE #47-257A which is a previously unidentified hilt classification now added.

Better pictures included with new information for Reference #47-249 hilt specifications and subsequent entries.

19 new Socket Bladed variants added to section 47 on Imperial German Ersatz bayonets.  This includes 2 more previously unidentified hilt variants.



-REFERENCE #47-404B(8) was misidentified and is actually  REFERENCE #47-405B(8) (A new variant)

7  New Socket Bladed variants added to section 47 on Imperial German Ersatz bayonets.  This includes 3 more previously unidentified hilt variants.

Additional data and images added to Reference #22-30 FN24 bayonet.

1 new variant added to section 8 on M1890 bayonets.

1 new variant added to section #35 on Turkish reissued Czech VZ23 bayonets.

Incidental images and information about some Turkish rifles added to several sections as additional items of interest.

30NOV06 - Reference #47-249B(?1) identified as having a US M1855 blade as Reference #47-249B(10) and removed as redundant.

Reference #47-249B(?2) identified as having a Danish M1841 blade and redesignated as Reference #47-249B(11).

30DEC06 - Reference #80-25 added to Yugoslav M24 section.

12APR08 - 24APR08


-Reference #41-30 New information suggests that example previously identified as a converted German issue bayonet is not a conversion of a former German issue bayonet.

-References regarding the pronunciation of the Turkish producer of the M1913 bayonet in section #10 have all been corrected from "Tone Han" to "Tuna Han"

12APR08 - 24APR08

-Chapter 31 dealing with British socket bayonet for the No.4 Enfield retitled "Bayonets for the British #4 Enfield Rifle and MkV STEN Sub Machinegun". The section was reformatted to be printer friendly. Information regarding the #9 bayonet was updated and added to.  Several new variants and information were also added to this section.

- A total of 15 new variant Turkish bayonets were collectively added and images for listing of 15 others were improved, added to or otherwise enhanced.


New Reference #s added ; 12-340 and 47-204275


Reference #8-11 positively identified as M1900 Luxembourg contract variant of Turkish m1890 bayonet.

Additional information added to Reference #8-21.


New Reference # added ; 47-23221


New modified crossguard type added to ersatz classifications in section #47

New Reference #s added ; 47-20167D and 15-10

Article on Turkish conversions of bayonets to fit the US M1 Garand updated and expanded.


New Reference #s added ; 47-201275 and 47-4024


Additional example of Reference #8-70 added with a different scabbard.


New Reference #s added ; 44-4111E, 47-259B(7), 47-421B(7) and 99-20

New hilt variant added to Section #47.

A substantial number of improved images added.  (I'm afraid to say I failed to keep track while I was doing it and can't say just how many I added and changed.)

3JUL12 - 10JUL12

New Reference #s added ; 6-21, 43-71, 47-2021, 47-2041, 47-2321, 47-2401, 47-240275, 47-2501(Plus base hilt images added), 47-2551(Plus base hilt images added), New Base Hilt #331 with images and subsequent example 47-3312,

Improved images added for the following Reference #s ; 2-21, 6-10, 9-10, 29-111, Base Hilt 47-202, 47-230275, Base Hilt 47-232, Base Hilt 47-240 (Plus related Fraktur inspectors marks), 47-2403

Additional information added to Reference #s ; 6-10, 7-15 (with extra additional example added), 29-111(Formerly only a provisional reference.)


-Reference #7-80 was completely misidentified and is not Turkish at all.  It is an Austrian Post WWII bayonet for British No.1 MkIII rifles.

-Reference #29-211 was misidentified and is actually Reference #29-221.  It has been moved to its correct position within Section 29 and the text corrected.

Sections 6 and 46 reformatted to be more printer friendly.

11APR13 - 16JUL13

New Reference #s added ; 6-29, 8-12, 8-23, 9-24, 9-65, 11-26, 12-126, 12-135, 12-141, 12-211, 12-261, 21-38 (2 examples presented), 44-42113, 44-4331F, 44-52114, 45-70, 47-1032, 47-1212, 47-2091, 47-2402434, 47-2404, 47-2412434, 47-2554, 47-2604, 47-3202281, Base Hilt Reference 47-419, 47-4192, 55-14

Improved and/or additional images added for the following Reference #s ; 6-40, 8-21, 44-431171, Base Hilt Reference 47-102, 47-1024, Base Hilt Reference 47-103, Base Hilt Reference 47-120, 47-1202, 47-2041, Base Hilt Reference 47-209, 47-3102, 47-3302281,

Additional information added to Reference #s ; 9-16 (with extra additional example added), Base Hilt Reference 47-209, Base Hilt Reference 47-421

References regarding whether the original muzzle ears on ersatz bayonets in Section 47 are single stage, 2 stage or ovular have all been reviewed and clarified where necessary.


-Reference #47-102 (Base hilt reference) + 47-1024 fits both GEW1888 and GEW1898

-Reference #47-104 (Base hilt reference) has 2 stage muzzle ears and fits both GEW1888 and GEW1898



-Reference #3-10 example 1 was misidentified.  It has been redesignated as Reference #3-12 leaving the second example cited as Reference #3-10 in place.


New Reference # added: 47-1323


New Reference #s added: 8-24, 47-2062342, 47-241461

Improved and/or additional images added for the following Reference #s ; 9-17, 47-2544, 47-330228